- All references cited in the body of a manuscript must be cited in the reference list. Likewise, all references appearing in the reference list must be cited in the body of the manuscript.
- When citing more than one source in the body of a manuscript, list the sources in chronological order. For example, (Schein 1980, Mills & Tancred 1992, Levy 2001).
- Whenever the same work is referred to in the same paragraph, cite the author(s) and the year each and every time.
- Use the ampersand (&) when citing multiple authors within parentheses and in the reference list. For example, (Strauss & White 1998). When cited in-text but outside parentheses, the authors would always appear as Strauss and White (1998).
- Works by the same author(s) published in the same year must be distinguished by using ‘a’ and ‘b’ to separate them. For example, Cummings 2002a, Cummings 2002b. Cummings 2002a will precede Cummings 2002b in both the body of the manuscript and in the reference list.
- Where an institution is referred to, cite the full name of the organisation the first time with the initials italicised. For example, ‘data from the World Health Organisation (WHO) show that...’. Thereafter, use the initials only but without italics.
- Initials can be used for terms such as multinational corporations (MNCs) provided the full term is used the first time.
- If an author cannot be cited, show the first few words of the title of the article in single quotation marks. For example (‘Thin blue line’ 2000).
- Use single quotation marks for phrases or words that are not a direct quotation. For example,
A recent Bennis/Linkage survey (1999) of 5000 high performance organisations in the United States, identified ‘exposure to senior executives’ as the most critical program for accelerating the development of high potential employees.
- Use double quotation marks and cite the author and the page number for direct quotations or citations. For example,
According to Sebald (1968: 69), “Intergenerational conflict and tension are unavoidable in a rapidly changing society.”
- If a direct quotation exceeds 40 words, use a block quotation without quotation marks, double spaced, indented one space from the left. Note the position of the page number. For example,
As noted by Frankel (1962):
There was evidence of tensions between groups of younger and older workers, instances of prejudice, stereotyping and hostility on either side, and evidence of large scale attempts to get older workers out of the labor market in order to provide more job opportunities for younger workers. (p.27)
- Cite numbers less than ten in words and numbers ten and above in digits. For example, five per cent, 15 per cent. Note that per cent is used in preference to % and percent. Use % in tables only.
Books and Journals: In Text
- When a work has a single author, cite the author and publication date every time.
According to Adler (1991), this theory has since been refuted.
This theory has since been refuted (Adler 1991).
- When a work has two authors, cite both authors every time. For example,
Note the use of the ampersand within the parentheses.
According to Aaron and Aaron (1991), this theory has since been refuted.
This theory has since been refuted (Aaron & Aaron 1991).
- For two - five authors.
When a work has two, three, four or five authors, cite all authors the first time. Thereafter, use et al. (note the ‘al’ has a full stop). For example,
Thereafter use et al.
According to Zemke, Raines and Filipczak (2000), this theory has since been refuted.
This theory has since been refuted (Zemke, Raines & Filipczak 2000).
According to Zemke, et al. (2000), this theory has since been refuted.
This theory has since been refuted (Zemke, et al. 2000).
- For six or more authors.
When a work has six or more authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. each and every time.