RESEARCH AND PRACTICE
IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Highlight, copy & paste to cite:

Srivastav, A. K. (2011). Process Based Role Analysis and Design: Application in a Business School, Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, 19(2), 101-112.

Process Based Role Analysis and Design: Application in a Business School

Avinash Kumar Srivastav

Abstract

Contemporary business schools are enmeshed in competitive global environment which compels reexamining the role of the faculty. Process Based Role Analysis and Design (PROBRAD) was employed for this purpose. Development and application of PROBRAD is described. PROBRAD leads to an enhanced role effectiveness, role contribution, organisational alignment. The new role design comprises Role Mission, Role Expectations, Critical Attributes, Behavioural Norms, Role Activities and Tasks. Clearer role mission, expectations, activities, tasks enable faculty to perform effectively, reducing their role stress. Behavioural norms drive emulation of desired behaviours by faculty, enabling functional organisational culture. Awareness of critical attributes can motivate faculty to make self development plans and enables business schools to move effectively faculty recruitment, selection, development and career advancement. Objective faculty work planning can be done based on role mission, expectations, activities, tasks while objective faculty performance appraisal can be done on the basis of objective faculty work plans. The new role design sets the direction for faculty to maximise their role contribution to critical business processes (Academic Delivery, Intellectual Capital Generation, Institute Industry Interfacing, Institution Building). The paper demonstrates how business school faculty can work for showcasing their business school as an efficient organisation with the image of a progressive business school.

Introduction

Business schools are relatively younger organisations (Canals 2009). These institutions are responsible to serve the needs of the society (McFarlane, Mujtaba & Cavico 2009) by helping the relevant industries to enhance their effectiveness through the generation of relevant knowledge and expertise, the development of effective managers and management practices, and by providing employable management graduates who could be potential leaders. The number of business schools has been growing all over the world with the rate of growth has been faster in developing countries. Competition amongst business schools at the national and international levels has also been growing as contemporary business schools are enmeshed in a competitive global environment, and this phenomenon has created daunting challenges for business schools in different dimensions of their operation.

Business schools are being compelled to adopt innovative ways to satisfy the changing needs and demands of their stakeholders (Hawawini 2005, Harvey, Novicevic, Ready, Kuffel & Duke 2006, Cornuel 2007, McFarlane, et al. 2009, Seethamraju 2010). The schools are being obliged to align with the contextual needs of the communities to better serve the prospective business school graduates (Pearson & Chatterjee 2010). Furthermore, business schools have to manage internationalisation (attracting higher quality students and faculty from all over the world, exchanging faculty and students with the worlds’ best business schools) as well as global competition among business schools (Hawawini 2005, Harvey, et al. 2006, Cornuel 2007).

Ensuring professionalism in the management of the business school has potential to make an efficient organisation (Hawawini 2005, Canals 2009, Mamun & Mohamad 2009). Clearly raising necessary funding for business school expansion will be called for in the prevailing dynamic environment (Hawawini 2005, Cornuel 2007, Canals 2009). In addition, a careful balance must be maintained among different streams of business school income.

Managing the process and outcomes of research is important in business schools (Hawawini 2005, Harvey, et al. 2006, Canals 2009). Indeed, the faculty workload needs to be finely balanced between research and teaching to strengthen teaching outcomes and consulting implications. The relevance of curriculum will ensure the dynamically changing needs of prospective employers of business school graduates (Cornuel 2007, Canals 2009, Mamun & Mohamad 2009, Seethamraju 2010). Furthermore, business schools will benefit by attracting, developing, and retaining faculty members with proven track records (Hawawini 2005, Harvey, et al. 2006, Cornuel 2007, Canals 2009).

Business schools will benefit by building and maintaining a differentiated brand image (Hawawini 2005, McFarlane, et al. 2009). Business schools are unlikely to survive unless they maintain their image (Hawawini 2005) to attract higher quality students, clients and industry supporters. A prominent strategy is to emphasise research and intellectual capital generation by their faculty because faculty research productivity has a positive relationship with business school prestige and image (Armstrong & Sperry 1994, Borokhovich, Bricker, Brunarski & Simkins 1995). But many business school faculties, particularly in the newer upcoming ones in the developing countries, believe that they are too busy with teaching, preparation for teaching, and student evaluation, and have neither the need nor the time for engaging in research or intellectual capital generation. Overcoming a faculty’s resistance to change, expanding the role of the faculty and enhancing its effectiveness are imperative for attaining higher prestige and image for most business schools (Harvey, et al. 2006). According to Canals (2009), a successful model of business school is based on excellent faculty that should deliver quality academic programmes and generate new knowledge. This outcome will result in preparing the students to deliver higher performance of companies, and attracting better endowment for the business school. Successful management of large scale change in business schools is inevitable in the prevailing circumstances, and these forces will encourage redefining the role of faculty (Harvey, et al. 2006), to expand academic delivery by emphasising contribution to intellectual capital generation and the building of symbiotic relationship with industries.

This paper is focused on redesigning the role of business school faculty. The approach is through a systematic analysis and design of the role of business processes served, making roles more effective by expanding them well beyond teaching to meet the challenges and expectations from the wider community about what contemporary business schools. The document has been organised in six parts. The first part of the paper highlights the limitations of conventional job descriptions and the need for replacing job description with role clarification for enhancing the effectiveness of jobs/roles. The second part of the paper delineates different techniques for role clarification to enhance role effectiveness. The third part traces the development of PROBRAD. The fourth part of the paper furnishes the details of methodology adopted for the study, describing the PROBRAD intervention. The fifth part furnishes the results obtained through application of PROBRAD, which includes the business processes to be contributed for, the role set comprising the role senders, and the elements of the new role design for the business school faculty. The final part of the paper presents the conclusions.

The Need for Role Clarification

All job holders invariably need clarity of expectations from their jobs if they are to perform well. Classical job descriptions remain as mere documents on record because they do not consider the dynamics of relationship with other related jobs (Sayles 1964). Knowledge of how the other related job holders contribute to their own job performance for all job holders to ensure optimum job performance.

Role Theory

Biddle (1986) provides a radically different and powerful approach for enhancing individual and organisational performance. The notion is based on the fact that people define roles for themselves and others on the basis of their social learning (Bandura 1971). This effect assumes that people develop expectations from the roles played by them and others. Indeed, people influence others to fulfil expectations held by tem for the roles of others. People perform different functions in their roles so as to fulfil expectations from their roles held by themselves and colleagues. Role theory (Hales 1986) provides a powerful explanation for the interactions among individuals in an organisation by focusing on roles played by them.

Individual behaviour is influenced by the social positions held by the individuals and the expectations from those positions (Barker 1999). According to Thompson (2001), expectations for appropriate behaviour in a role influence the behaviour of the role occupant in that role. Role sending (Fondas & Stewart 1994) means conveying role expectations (either directly or indirectly) to the role occupant. Role receiving (Fondas & Stewart 1994) means fully or partly accepting the role expectations conveyed. Behaviour of the role occupant changes through iteration of role sending followed by role receiving (Thompson 2001).

The classical study of organisational behaviour is being done at three levels. These three levels are identified as 1) individuals, 2) groups, and 3) organisation as a whole. Role theory points to the need for its study at the fourth level of Organisational Roles (Krantz & Maltz 1997) which take into account the dynamics of relationships (Pareek 1993) between the focal role and its connected roles. Organisational role is defined by the expectations of people who are significant for performing in the role. These significant people include the role occupant himself/herself and are known as Role Senders (Merton 1957). The role occupant and his/her role senders as a group are known as the Role Set (Merton 1957). Clarification of a role means defining its Role Expectations.

Role Clarification Techniques

Role Clarification

Dyer, Dyer and Schein (2007) define the role expectations. How each team member complements the performance of other team members is the foundation of Role Clarification Model of Teambuilding (Sims, Klein & Salas 2006). Role clarification is far more comprehensive and it addresses the void left unfulfilled by classical job descriptions. According to Salas, Rozell, Mullen and Driskell (1999), interventions that emphasise role clarification lead to performance enhancement.

Role clarification can be done in three ways (Burke 1995). Job Expectation Technique (Huse 1980) is useful whenever a new member is introduced in a team. Role Negotiation Technique (Harrison 1972) is helpful when role conflicts are pronounced. Role Analysis Technique (RAT) (Dayal & Thomas 1968) is useful when there is high ambiguity in role expectations.

Evolution of PROBRAD

Role Analysis Technique

The construct transforms job descriptions into Role Expectations (Dayal 1969). Unlike classical job description, role expectations are better understood and owned by the role occupant. Based on the work of Dayal and Thomas (1968), Role Analysis as a structured exercise was developed for enhancing the effectiveness of organisational roles by Pareek (1975). Sarangi (1988) used role analysis in different types of organisations.

Role analysis not only clarifies the role expectations, but it also identifies in the process of role performance. Srivastav (1999) suggested that role analysis should be followed by redesigning of roles to minimise/handle/manage such problems. Significant improvement in role effectiveness can be achieved in this way. Organisations need a number of well designed business processes (Tenner & DeToro 1997) to deliver the desired organisational performance. Business processes should form the basis for everything organisations do for operation, maintenance, development or growth (Seethamraju & Marjonovic 2009, Seethamraju 2010). When organisational design/structure is based on the business processes, organisations are geared to deliver the best from their business processes. A process owner is assigned for managing each business process to ensure successful delivery of the desired process outputs through the use of appropriate technology and people playing their given roles.

An organisational role may contribute to more than one business processes. Performance of an organisation can, therefore, be improved by enhancing the format of its business processes and their alignment with each other. This in turn will lead to reinvigorating effectiveness of the related roles and technologies employed and their alignment with each other. Maximisation of organisational performance, in fact needs comprehensive organisational connection among all the organisational components (Powell 1992) to realign roles with organisational structure and policies so activities and tasks can effectively be carried out by the role occupants in their new roles. Processes have to be coordinated with organisational systems and procedures must be linked with processes ensuring the organisational system is aligned with organisational structure and policies. In short, processes must be integrated with roles, and procedures must be aligned with activities and tasks.

Srivastav (2006) underlined the need for analysis and design of roles based on business processes. These connections are served by the role and developed PROBRAD (Srivastav 2011a), as a practical organisation development intervention (Srivastav 2012) which could be used with equal ease by operational and human resource/organisational development managers. PROBRAD is aimed at serving the following three objectives, 1) maximising effectiveness of organisational roles, 2) maximising effectiveness of the related business processes, and 3) maximising alignment among all the organisational components (Srivastav 2010).

Methodology

Site

A prominent business school (PBS) (name disguised) in the private sector in Bangalore, was selected for the study. PBS employs 60 faculty members, 10 faculty assistants (helping senior faculty members in teaching/research) and 20 non teaching personnel (distributed in computer centre, library, administration and student support functions). The institution conducts a two year postgraduate programme in management, offering a large number of elective courses, turning out 350 management postgraduates each year with specialisation in finance, marketing, operations, systems, and human resources. PBS had an envious placement record of cent per cent in the past which was threatened due to economic slowdown. The student intake in PBS was also likely to be adversely influenced due to newer regulations of the government, but PBS wanted to enhance its image to consolidate its position among the community of business schools in its league.

Procedure

PROBRAD was selected for redefining the role of the business school faculty to enable the business school to enhance its prestige and image. The intervention can be best understood by understanding how it can be applied. The 11 stages steps were followed to arrive at the new role design for the business school faculty.

  1. Role Set, comprising the focal role (PBS faculty in this study) and other roles (within or outside PBS) with whom the focal role interacts during the course of his/her role performance, is identified.
  2. Role Set Members (role occupants in the role set) are trained on the concept of organisational roles and how they can be made more effective (Pareek 1993). They are informed about the objectives of PROBRAD.
  3. Role set members are exposed to the elements of role design. Role design comprises the following elements. Role Mission (the main purpose of the role), Role Expectations (major deliverables from role performance), Critical Attributes (qualifications, knowledge, skills, and experience necessary for satisfactory role performance), Behavioural Norms (specific behaviours that would enhance the quality of role performance), and Role Activities (which need to be carried out for realising each role expectation) and Tasks (which need to be accomplished under each role activity).
  4. Conducive climate is created and reinforced throughout the exercise. There are seven stages: (a) maintaining constant focus on realising the objectives of PROBRAD, (b) emphasising not only the maintenance dimension of the role, (representing the minimum necessary functions in the role) but also the development dimension of the role (representing the expanded/futuristic functions for superior role performance), (c) focusing not only on the results but also on the process followed for arriving at results, (d) discouraging power conflicts and dysfunctional behaviours, (e) basing discussions on issues and not on people, consciously avoiding attributions for past failures, (f) promoting creative involvement (Srivastav 2011b) of role set members to fully harness the organisational knowledge available with them, and (g) emphasising proactive approach to prevent the problems in future and to reduce their negative manifestations when prevention is not possible.
  5. Business processes in which the focal role contributes are identified through discussions with role set members.
  6. Role set members are facilitated to examine how the focal role can contribute for maximising the performance of its related business processes. This is kept in view while finalising the role design for the focal role.
  7. Tentative design for the role elements (or the elements of role design) are finalised one by one in the following manner: (a) role set members write their individual prescriptions for the given role element so as to realise the best possible performance of the focal role, (b) the focal role occupant presents to role set members his/her prescription for the role element, (c) each role set member responds to the presentation made by focal role occupant (expressing appreciation and/or concerns, offering critique, asking questions or seeking clarifications), (d) each role set member presents to the focal role occupant his/her prescription for the role element, (e) the focal role occupant responds to the presentation made by the role set member (expressing appreciation and/or concerns, offering critique, asking questions or seeking clarifications), (f) tentative design for the role element is finalised by the focal role occupant, arriving at a consensus among the role set members.
  8. Tentative role design (a compilation of tentative designs for all the role elements) is presented by the focal role occupant to the role set members.
  9. Tentative role design is re-examined by the role set members to ensure comprehensive alignment among the organisational components, among the role components (role activities, role expectation, role mission), with the mission of the process, and with the mission of the institution. These concepts are presented as Figure 1. Role design is finalised by arriving at a consensus among the role set members.
  10. Changes (in organisational structure, policies, system, processes, procedures) required for ensuring comprehensive alignment are documented and taken up with the management.
  11. Overloaded or eroded (unimportant) roles identified during the exercise are removed. They are subjected to PROBRAD in their new versions after necessary structural changes in the organisation. Overloaded roles are split into multiple roles or their workloads are appropriately reduced. Eroded role are abolished, enriched or clubbed with other suitable roles (Srivastav, 2007).

Figure 1
Alignment between role and mission of the Institution
The role set

Note. Adapted from Srivastav, 1999.

Results

Application of PROBRAD for redefining the role of faculty in PBS has yielded the following results which include the business processes to be contributed for by the faculty, role set, and elements of the new role design as described next.

Business Processes

PBS faculty member are directly responsible for enabling PBS to deliver in four different ways to its stakeholders (students, prospective students, alumni, faculty members, prospective faulty members, industries and prospective employers of graduating students). The faculty members need to perform in their roles to satisfy the requirements of four business processes as described below.

  1. Delivering the assigned course(s) to the given batch/batches of students, enabling them to learn most effectively. This can be called as Academic Delivery Process (ADP).
  2. Understanding the needs of the industry and enabling students to secure their prospects for progressive employment. This can be called as Institute-Industry Interfacing Process (3IP).
  3. Publishing research papers in refereed journals. This can be called as Intellectual Capital Generation Process (ICGP).
  4. Enhancing the prestige and image of the institution. This can be called as Institution Building Process (IBP).

The faculty members have to contribute to each one of the above mentioned business processes. In addition, academic delivery, institute-industry interfacing and intellectual capital generation processes and their process owners also contribute to institution building process.

The Role Set

The role set for the faculty member is shown as Figure 2). These arrangements identify interactions required by role occupiers in the context of the school arrangements and processes.

Figure 2
The role set
The role set

It comprises the faculty member himself/herself as the focal role occupant, the Business School Head as the superior or boss, Faculty Assistant as the direct report or subordinate (in case of senior faculty members) who helps the faculty member in teaching/ research. In addition, the role set includes a number of roles (within and outside PBS) which can be categorised as peers for the faculty member, as they are neither superiors nor direct reports. Peer roles for the faculty member are as follows: Academic Head as the process owner of ADP, Industry Interaction Head as the process owner of 3IP, Research Head as the process owner of ICGP, Business School Head as the process owner of IBP apart from being the superior or boss, Faculty Coordinator who coordinates an assigned activity for the business school (e.g., Student Activity Coordinator), Other Faculty Member with whom the focal role interacts during the course of his role performance, Student who is taught, guided, mentored, supervised and monitored by the faculty, Alumnus (Past Student) who expects to be supported by PBS and can be useful for PBS in several ways, and Representative of Industry where PBS postgraduates are current or prospective employees and/or a PBS faculty is an existing or prospective advisor, consultant or trainer.

The Role Mission

The following role mission was finalised for the PBS faculty: To be internationally recognised for scholarship in the chosen domain, as an educator, consultant and researcher.

Role Expectations

Six role expectations were finalised for the PBS faculty as follows: 1) Attain higher scholarship in the chosen domain, 2) Maximise effectiveness of learning by the students, 3) Enhance capability to serve industries, 4) Enable industries to realise higher levels of performance, 5) Gain higher recognition for intellectual capital generation, and 6) Contribute to institution building.

Role Activities

Activities for each role expectation were finalised as follows:

Attain higher scholarship in the chosen domain is realised through the following activities. Acquiring higher academic and professional qualifications, enhancing own knowledge in the chosen domain, expanding the body of knowledge in the chosen domain, expanding the application of knowledge, and making higher contributions to well recognised professional societies, bodies, forums.

Maximise effectiveness of learning by the students is realised through the following activities. Ensuring adequate preparation for the class, creating and maintaining student interest in the subject, course and sessions, maintaining student motivation to learn, creating healthy peer pressure for learning, maximising student participation in class, creating and nurturing the climate of learning, and measuring and enhancing the effectiveness of student learning.

Enhance capability to serve industries is realised through the following activities. Enhancing engagement with industries, understanding the pressing needs of the industries, enriching course curriculum to match the requirement of industries, learning best practices from industries, equipping the students with the knowledge of best practices, preparing for serving the needs of industries as a trainer and consultant, motivating industries for campus recruitment of students, and motivating industries to engage students in their project activities, motivating industries to harness faculty/institute expertise through projects, workshops, training, consulting.

Enable industries to realize higher levels of performance is realised through the following activities. Equipping the students to satisfy the needs and expectations of industries, enhancing student and faculty engagement with industries, enabling students to successfully complete useful projects for industries, identifying the training and consulting needs of industries, acquiring the expertise to become an effective trainer and consultant, motivating industries to enhance their performance, conducting trainings and workshops for enhancing industrial performance, and rendering consultancy for enhancing industrial performance.

Gain higher recognition for intellectual capital generation is realised through the following activities. Keeping updated with latest developments in the chosen domain, enhancing competence for research, identifying the required level (the higher the better) of target publications, understanding publication requirements of target publications, preparing for meeting the publication requirements of target publications, formulating yearly intellectual capital generation plan, generating monthly/ quarterly action plan for intellectual capital generation, monitoring own performance with respect to plan, initiating corrective actions needed for filling in the gaps (seeking peer help, enhancing competence, improving the quality of contributions), benchmarking own performance with researchers at higher levels and taking corrective actions needed for filling in the gaps, and working for publishing in higher level of target publications.

Contribute to institution building is realised through the following activities. Showcasing PBS and its faculty to attract higher quality of prospective students, contributing to enhance the effectiveness of admission process, contributing for all round development of students, mentoring students for showcasing themselves as most suitable prospective employees, contributing to enhance the effectiveness of placement process, showcasing PBS and its faculty to attract higher quality of prospective faculty, contributing to enhance the effectiveness of faculty recruitment process, helping other faculty members to enhance their competence and effectiveness in teaching, research, training, consulting, project work, student supervision, contributing for enhancing the effectiveness of structures, systems, processes, procedures in PBS, contributing to build and nurture functional work environment, showcasing PBS to industries as a preferred business school for campus recruitment, preferred expert agency for solving problems faced by the industry and as a centre for advanced research for current and futuristic industrial applications, contributing for obtaining and maintaining accreditation for PBS from relevant statutory bodies/authorities, and for obtaining and maintaining higher and higher ratings for PBS from relevant bodies.

Tasks

Under, different role expectations, tasks to be completed need to be defined for some of the role activities. The following are the illustrative examples.

Role Expectation # 2

Ensuring adequate preparation for the class can be accomplished through the following tasks. Acquiring the required knowledge for delivering on course objectives, identifying practical examples for easier understanding of major concepts and theories, developing a course plan to address the course objectives, developing individual session plans, identifying teaching method to be used and teaching aids to be employed for each session, anticipating students’ difficulties in understanding the contents of each session and being equipped to handle them effectively, designing evaluation tools for checking the extent of learning difficult/critical parts of each session, advising students on preparations to be made before each session, giving them adequate time, and ensuring readiness of classroom, teaching aids, evaluation tools, students and faculty for each session.

Creating and maintaining student interest in the subject, course and sessions can be accomplished through the following tasks. Enabling students to cherish a laudable mission for learning the subject, demonstrating practical application of concepts and theories taught, creating opportunities for students to use newly learnt application of concepts and theories, avoiding monotony and boredom in the class in creative ways (using different styles of teaching for different parts of the session and/or course, maintaining an element of surprise instead of following the same routine all the time, appropriately using humour).

Maintaining student motivation to learn can be accomplished through the following tasks. ensuring gradual exposure of students from simple to complex topics, using creative ways to ensure understanding of previous topic before taking up the new topic (through questions to verify learning, quizzes, written/oral tests, quick recapitulation of older topic), and encouraging students to ask questions, clarify doubts and frankly express their opinions.

Creating healthy peer pressure for learning can be accomplished through the following tasks. Randomly picking the students to answer questions for assessing the degree of learning, recognising superior student performance in answering questions, making presentations, completing assignments, and sensitively advising consistent poor performers, mentoring them to develop.

Maximising student participation in class can be accomplished through the following tasks. Employing creative ways to offer opportunities for participation (student projects, self study assignments, student presentations, role plays, class debates on pros and cons of different viewpoints/approaches/ methodologies, class readings and discussions), enabling students to furnish their own examples for application of concepts and theories taught, identifying non-participating students and enabling them to participate, and rewarding class participation.

Creating and nurturing the climate of learning can be accomplished through the following tasks: respecting all students, irrespective of their origin, background, nature, competence or performance, ensuring equity, fairness and justice to all students, employing creative ways to discourage, if not prevent dysfunctional student-behaviour (bullying, aggressiveness, arrogance, power conflicts, intimidating/ disturbing/ disrespecting the speaker, interrupting/disturbing class proceedings, exploiting others’ weakness, unethical practices, indiscipline, diverting own/others’ attention to unproductive activities, lack of punctuality, absenteeism, delayed submission of assignments, not being prepared for the class, casual approach, lack of participation in the class or in other student-learning activities), ensuring equity, fairness and justice to all students, employing creative ways to reinforce functional student behaviour (sensitivity for others in the group, helping others to develop, team working, punctuality, discipline, ethical practices, taking responsibility and initiative, concern for achievement of goals, pursuit of quality and excellence, active class participation, active listening, being prepared for the class, timely submission of assignments), providing timely and objective feedback to students on their behaviour and performance on a continuous basis, encouraging students to express their dissent/disagreement and clarifying their doubts, promoting unbiased examination of pros and cons of different approaches/ solutions/ methods/ practices/ interventions, promoting learning from mistakes to minimize if not prevent mistakes in future, promoting learning from failures, taking them as stepping stones for greater success in future.

Measuring and enhancing the effectiveness of student learning can be accomplished through the following tasks. Obtaining student feedback, assessing student performance in examinations/ tests/ quizzes/ campus interviews, requesting other faculty members to assess the students taught, identifying cases of poor student learning and offering outside the class individual coaching, developing and implementing the action plan to enhance student learning.

Role Expectation # 3

Enhancing engagement with industries can be accomplished through the following tasks. Supporting alumni to serve their respective industries more effectively, involving alumni in different activities as participants, judge, advisor, guest faculty, involving experts from industries in different activities as participants, judge, advisor, guest faculty.

Critical Attributes

The following critical attributes were finalised for the PBS faculty: 1) MBA/Postgraduate diploma in management/business administration (or 5 years managerial experience in industry) followed by doctorate in a management related discipline, 2) Adequate domain knowledge, 3) Aptitude for teaching, research, institute industry interfacing and institution building, and 4) Commensurate experience in teaching/research/institute industry interfacing/institution building activities.

Behavioural Norms

The following norms of behaviour were finalised for the PBS faculty. 1) Reflect professional approach in everything within and outside the business school, 2) Become a role model for the student, faculty, business schools and society, 3) Emphasise quality, excellence and achievement of goals, 4) Take pride in achievements but do not become complacent, 5) Appreciate others’ superiority and accomplishments, 6) Enable others to grow, develop and excel, 7) Give and receive help with equal ease, 8) Make yourself relevant to others in the team, functional department and business school, 9) Ensure congruence among feeling, saying, doing, 10) Own up mistakes, failures, deficiencies, 11) Use mistakes/failures as stepping stones for bigger success in future, 12) Do not look down upon those whose performance is lower than yours, 13) Do not pull down those whose performance is higher than yours, and 14) Discourage defensive behaviour in all forms.

Discussion

Application of PROBRAD in PBS has resulted in a new role design for the business school faculty, expanding it beyond teaching (academic delivery) to include institute industry interfacing, intellectual capital generation and institution building. PROBRAD focuses on enhancement of effectiveness of the focal role (business school faculty in this case), improvement of its role contribution to related business processes and building comprehensive organisational alignment. Designing a new role through PROBRAD necessarily makes use of creative involvement of role set members and arriving at a consensus among them. It should therefore results in enhancement of ownership, commitment and empowerment by the role set members for enhancement of effectiveness of the focal role, improvement of its role contribution to related business processes and building comprehensive alignment among organisational components and elements of role design.

Conclusion

The new role design is comprehensive with clearly defined Role Mission, Role Expectations, Critical Attributes, Behavioural Norms, Role Activities and Tasks for business school faculty. It has important implications for human resource management in business schools. Clearly defined role mission, role expectations, role activities and tasks has potential to motivate and enable business school faculty to perform more effectively, reducing stress experienced in role performance. Well defined behavioural norms are likely to motivate the faculty to emulate the desired behaviours. This achievement will assist in building and nurturing functional organisational culture in the business school. Moreover, identification of critical attributes will identify pathways to enable business school faculty to make their self development plans, besides helping the business school to realise more effective faculty recruitment, selection, development and career advancement. Furthermore, objective work planning for the faculty can be introduced by the business schools on the basis of well defined role expectations, role activities and tasks. Objective performance appraisal of the business school faculty can be done on the basis of objective work plan in terms of whether the performance has been Below Expectation, As Per Expectation, or Above Expectation. The new role design for the faculty is likely to strengthen a realisation among faculty to emphasise contributing for the four most important business processes (Academic Delivery, Institute Industry Interfacing, Intellectual Capital Generation, and Institution Building) rather than just focusing on teaching.

The new role design has the power to set the direction for business school faculty to maximise their role contribution to business processes. These arrangements are critical for 1) enhancing the effectiveness of their business school, and 2) advancing business school image and prestige. The new mechanisms serve as a blueprint for demonstrating how the faculty in a business school can work for 1) showcasing their business school as an efficient organisation, and 2) promoting its image and prestige as a Progressive Business School.

Author

Avinash Kumar Srivastav is an OD Consultant and a Visiting Professor at Goa Institute of Management, India. He has served as Director of Management Research, Dayananda Sagar Institutions, Dean (Research), Icfai Business School and Executive Director, ITI Limited at Bangalore, External Consultant to International Labour Organisation, Organisation Development Adviser, Change Management Adviser and Corporate HR Director in Indonesian industries at Jakarta. Holding MS in Electronics and Communication Engineering and PhD in Management. He has published more than 50 research papers in the field of Organisational Behaviour and Development in international refereed journals and edited books, and has been the Consulting Editor for Icfai Journal of Organizational Behavior.

Email: drkumarioc@hotmail.com

References

Armstrong, J. S., & Sperry, T. (1994). Business school prestige: Research versus teaching. Interfaces, 24(2), 13-43.

Bandura, A. (1971). Social learning theory, New York: General Learning Press.

Barker, R. L. (Ed.). (1999). The social work dictionary (4th ed.). Washington, DC: NASW Press.

Biddle, BJ. (1986). Recent developments in role theory. Annual Review of Sociology, 12, 67-92.

Borokhovich, K. A., Bricker, R. J., Brunarski, K. R., & Simkins, B. J. (1995). Finance research productivity. The Journal of Finance, 50(5), 1691-1717.

Burke, W. W. (1995). Team building. In W. B. Reddy (Ed.). Team building blueprints for productivity and satisfaction (3-14), New Delhi: S. Chand & Company Limited.

Canals, J. (2009, December 1). Seeking a greater impact: New challenges for business schools. [On-line]. IESE Business School Working Paper No. 838. Available http://ssrn.com/abstract=1550697 [2011, July 26].

Cornuel, E. (2007). Challenges facing business schools in the future. Journal of Management Development, 26(1), 87-92.

Dayal, I. (1969). Role analysis technique in job descriptions. California Management Review, 11(4), 47-50.

Dayal, I., & Thomas, J. (1968). Operation KPE: Developing a new organization. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 4(4), 473-506.

Dyer, W. G., Dyer, J. H., & Schein. E. H. (2007). Team building (4th ed.). New York: Jossey-Bass (John Wiley & Sons).

Fondas, N., & Stewart, R. (1994). Enactment in managerial jobs: A role analysis. Journal of Management Studies, 31(1), 83-103.

Hales, C. P. (1986). What do managers do? A critical review of the evidence. Journal of Management Studies, 23(1), 88-115.

Harrison, R. (1972). Role negotiation: A tough minded approach to team development. In W. W. Burke & H. A. Hornstein (Eds.). The social technology of organizational development. La Jolla, CA: University Associates.

Harvey, M. G., Novicevic, M., Ready, K. J., Kuffel, T., & Duke, A. (2006). Viewpoint: Managing change in business schools: Focus on faculty responses. Journal of Education for Business, 81(3), 160-164.

Hawawini, G. (2005). The future of business schools. Journal of Management Development, 24(9), 770-782.

Huse, E. F. (1980). Organization development and change (2nd ed.). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing.

Krantz, J., & Maltz, M. (1997). A framework for consulting to organizational role. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 49(2), 137-151.

McFarlane, D. A., Mujtaba, B. G., & Cavico, F. J. (2009). The business school in the 21st century and beyond: Integrating knowledge management philosophy. Journal of Knowledge Management Practice, 10(4), 1-10.

Merton, R. K. (1957). Social theory and social structure (Revised ed., 369-379). New York: Free Press.

Mamun, M. A., & Mohamad, A. B. (2009). Management education for contemporary challenges: The role of business school. European Journal of Scientific Research, 30(4), 649-661.

Pareek, U. (1975). Role effectiveness exercises, New Delhi: Learning Systems.

Pareek, U. (1993). Making organizational roles effective (58-78). New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited.

Pearson, C. A. L., & Chatterjee, S. (2010). Extending business education beyond traditional boundaries: A case study in negotiated problem resolution in a remote regional indigenous community in Australia. Journal of Teaching in International Business, 21(4), 307-328.

Powell, T. C. (1992). Organizational alignment as a competitive advantage. Strategic Management Journal, 13(2), 119-134.

Salas, E., Rozell, D., Mullen, B., & Driskell, J. E. (1999). The effect of team building on performance – An integration. Small group research, 30(3), 309-329.

Sarangi, P. K. (1988). A descriptive note on role analysis: Experience of Indian Oil Corporation Limited. In T. V. Rao, K. K. Verma, A. K. Khandelwal & E. Abraham (Eds.). Alternative approaches and strategies of human resource development (264-274). Jaipur: Rawat Publications.

Sayles, L. (1964). Managerial behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc.

Seethamraju, R., & Marjonovic, O. (2009). Role of process knowledge in business process improvement methodology: A case study. Business Process Management Journal, 15(6), 920-936.

Seethamraju, R. (2010, August 12-15). Business process management – A missing link in business education. Proceedings of the sixteenth Americas conference on information systems. Lima, Peru. Available http://aisel.aisnet.org/amcis2010/243 [2011, July 27].

Sims, D. E., Klein, C., & Salas, E. (2006). Team-Building. In W. Karwowsky (Ed.). International encyclopedia of ergonomics and human factors (2nd ed., Vol. 3, 2375-2397). Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press.

Srivastav, A. K. (1999, September 22-24). An Indonesian case study on human resource management. Paper presented at ILO’s Asian & Pacific Regional Round Table on Enterprise-Society Partnerships, International Labour Organisation, Bangkok, Thailand.

Srivastav, A. K. (2006, September 18-20). Process based role analysis and design for organizational development: An Indonesian case-study. Paper presented at Global OD Summit, Mysore, India.

Srivastav, A. K. (2007). Stress in organizational roles: Individual and organizational implications. Icfaian Journal of Management Research, 6(12), 64-74.

Srivastav, A. K. (2010). Process based role analysis and design: Application in information technology industry. DIAS technology review - The International Journal of Business and IT, 7(1), 14-21.

Srivastav, A. K. (2011a). Harnessing the potential of organization development. In E. Biech (Ed.). The 2011 Pfeiffer annual: Consulting (241-260). San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Srivastav, A. K. (2011b). ISO 9000 as an organisation development intervention. The TQM Journal, 23(3), 313-325.

Srivastav, A. K. (2012). Process based role analysis and design. In E. Biech (Ed.). The 2012 Pfeiffer annual: Consulting (233-250). San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Tenner, A. R., & DeToro, I. J. (1997). Process redesign, the implementation guide for managers. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Thompson, C. (2001, September 24). Conservation of resources theory. A Sloan work and family encyclopedia entry. Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA.