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Dayaram, K. (2005). Navigating Complexity: The Dynamics of Organisational Culture during a Merger, Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, 13(1), 71-84.

Navigating Complexity: The Dynamics of Organisational Culture during a Merger

Kandy Dayaram


Despite enthusiasm for the South African Constitutional obligation of 1996 to redress inequities in the public education sector, the integration of previously advantaged and disadvantaged colleges has realised enormous challenges and the progress has been slow. Many of these challenges are manifested in values, attitudes and behaviours which are rooted in traditional cultural baggage. This paper will focus on the dilemmas and enigmas encountered by participants in education contexts that are undergoing sea change in mindsets and work practices. Specifically, this paper employs a case study to delineate the major challenges that arise when contemporary transformational initiatives clash with traditional rigid and inflexible college cultures. The implications for human resource management (HRM) practices and policies in public sector institutions contemplating similar revitalisation are discussed.


The adoption of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (Act 108 of 1996) heralds a new phase in the structure and processes of the country’s education system. For example, this is illustrated in section 29 (1) (b), of the Constitution, 1996 (Act 108 of 1996), whereby it is stated that:

Every one has the right: … to further education, which the state, through reasonable measures, must make progressively available and accessible.

In pursuit of the constitutional obligation towards the redressing of inequities, the Ministry of Education developed a new landscape. Specifically, this initiative outlined the merger of technical colleges and the removal of past forms of discrimination within the Further Education and Training (FET) sector (Department of Education 2001a). This action was a significant endeavour to transform the South African Education sector.

Internationally, mergers are not a new phenomenon in education. Indeed, there are mergers dating back at least to the 19th century (Harman & Meek 1988, Skodvin 1999, Harman 2000, Harman & Harman 2003). Whilst many mergers have taken place for decades in the private sector, mergers in the South African educational institutions is a more recent phenomenon (Department of Education 1997, Harman & Harman 2003). Such a policy change was driven by the need to build institutional strength via the development of human resources, building economies of scale and a redistribution of resources between previously advantaged and disadvantaged institutions (Department of Education 1997, 2001a). Moreover, South African history is also unique in that it has been conceived from a legacy of apartheid with major inequities between educational institutions (Department of Education 1997, Reddy 1998, National Merger Plan 2001, Harman & Harman 2003). The impact of such practices is perceived via the cultures prevalent within these educational institutions. McShane and Travaglione (2005) argue that the original source of an organisation’s culture usually reflects the vision or mission of the organisation’s founders. However, the founders’ vision may exhibit biases or establish the early culture by projecting an image of what the organisation should be (Wilmott 1993, Robbins, Bergman, Stagg, & Coulter 2003). Against the backdrop of the challenges, which constraining organisational cultures pose, this paper utilises empirical evidence obtained from the merger of three FET colleges to explore its impact on change initiatives.

Given that each of the colleges were administered under a separatist policy and the institutional capacity varied according to the dictates of the apartheid rule prevalent in South Africa prior to 1994 (Reddy 1998), the paper will examine past institutional practices and their impact on transformation. Furthermore, an investigation into the impact of the organisational cultures on variables such as values, attitudes and organisational citizenship behaviour, and their implications for contemporary HRM policies and practices will be undertaken.

Baggage of the Past

The challenges facing the South African Education system is rooted in historical prejudices. The legacy of past authority is still prevalent, which promotes practices that are based on racial, gender and cultural domination (Department of Education 1997, 2001b, Wines 2004). Yet these dimensions fail to reflect the reality of today’s South African demographics, especially in governance, management and technological studies. In fact, the key features of the contemporary South African educational institutions are that a majority of college staff are white, white males dominate at managerial levels and a large number of women are employed on a part time basis. Moreover, the black workers are mostly employed as general support staff (Department of Education 1997). Clearly, there are few black role models (Mbigi 1995, Jinabhai 1998). Nevertheless, there is an emerging growth of black student numbers in what were historically white colleges. These several features raise the challenge of multi culturalism in a globalised arena which promotes egalitarianism. This outcome has obliged the South African Education Ministry to institute a National Committee to prepare the Education Management Report (Department of Education 1997).

A salient outcome from the National Committee was a document that highlighted the need for revitalising human resource management practices. A further assertion by Du Toit and Van der Waldt (1997) was that the public service was being dominated by an Afrikaan’s environment and culture with specific values. Undoubtedly, there was a need for cultural relevance. Indeed, most South African organisations were managed within a Western linear ‘cause-effect’ paradigm, and consequently, these organisations lack the pluralistic practices of systemic thinking that is compatible with indigenous African concepts such as ‘Ubuntu’ (Mbigi 1995). The resolution of these challenges would necessitate a change in organisational culture. Furthermore, the values, attitudes and organisational citizenship behaviour displayed within the academic institutions reflect the founders’ mission, one that emphasised separatism and highlighted inequities. Schein (2000) reinforces this argument that organisational cultures identify with everything from common behavioural patterns to espoused new corporate values which senior management wish to inculcate.

The recommendations of the National Committee led to the development of a strategy which outlined the merger of FET Colleges (Department of Education 2001a). A salient recommendation was that there was a requirement for specific strategies to address issues of equity and the maximum utilisation of existing facilities would need to be developed during the merger process. These strategies will, among others, include the development of human resources, sharing of resources and joint planning among providers of further education and training. Such transformation will be achieved through a merger process of previously advantaged and disadvantaged academic institutions.

Organisational Culture and Impact on Transformation

In order to increase the performance and undertake a reorientation program of the FET system, the development of staff becomes a crucial issue. Nevertheless, understanding the key performance indicators necessary for the successful attainment of such a transformation initiative within the FET sector becomes essential. However, transformation is dependent on the shared values, attitudes and behaviour of people within the merging institutions (Nahavandi & Malekzadeh 1999, Balestracci 2003, Alas & Vadi 2004). Conversely, those variables which are necessary for change are embedded in organisational cultures, which impact on facets such as equity and redressing imbalances in the workplace (Granell 1998, Skodvin 1999, Crain 2000). Therefore, in order to gain a deeper insight into the dynamics of transformation, an analysis of the culture prevalent in merging institutions has the potential to reveal the various values, attitudes and behaviours of those members undergoing sea change.

People within the merger process will ultimately drive the success of a change program. Despite the initiatives for transformation, it is understood that whilst the policy makers may set the agenda for change, the successful implementation of the process rests on the people within the merging organisations (Dackert, Paul, Sten-Olof & Curt 2003). Furthermore, the individuals and groups functioning within these institutions own the culture. Therefore, organisational culture can be viewed either as a powerful support or a more compelling obstacle for organisational change. Nahavandi & Malekzadeh (1999) assert that organisations with strong, well established corporate cultures find them to be a barrier to successful change. Although strong institutional cultures have a powerful influence throughout an organisation, it can be a liability when shared values are not synchronised with those that will further the organisation’s effectiveness (Granell 1998, Skodvin 1999, Crain 2000). Consequently, in order for effective organisational improvements to occur after the merger process, an understanding of the cultural dynamics of academic institutions becomes imperative. Crain (2000) recommends the commission of a cultural audit to determine the feasibility of meeting the desired objectives of a merger. Dacket et al. (2003) argue that the success of the integration process after a merger is critically dependent on how employees of merger partners perceive the culture of the organisations involved and the expectations they have of the new organisation. This assertion is supported by McMurray (2003) that ultimately belief systems are derived from prevailing values, and, therefore, associated with the organisational culture.

People within institutions exhibit different behaviours which ultimately impact on the change process (Kemp 1994, Cartwright & Cooper 1996, Dackert, et al. 2003). Furthermore, it is advocated that the tensions in the dynamics of the merger process centre on factors such as risk, uncertainty, conflict and negotiation associated with change in any organisation (Skodvin 1999). This evidence is supported by international experiences. According to Skodvin (1999), evidence from merger proposals in educational institutions in Sweden indicate that in spite of the mergers being voluntary there were experiences associated with stress, fear and tension. Also, mergers within the Australian Higher Education domain were viewed by staff as threatening unique institutional strengths and traditions (Harman 2000). In both instances the behaviour process of people undergoing change were perfectly designed from past practices and values. Despite efforts to improve the conflict and uncertainty, factors associated with transformation, it has been often noted that people undergoing the change process exhibit behaviours stemming from established values and beliefs (Balestracci 2003). Consequently, institutional culture becomes a powerful integrating force that helps to implement strategy and acts as an enabler for change management (Kotter 1996, Hofmeyr 1998, Mullins 1999). Therefore, the creation of a new institutional and work ethos characterised by co-operation, teamwork, flexibility, quality, and service orientation remains a major challenge for staff development in South Africa.

A major obstacle facing the South African FET institutions is the removal of parochial thinking. These frameworks have been entrenched by past institutional practices, and the challenge is moving towards equity and redressing of injustices within the educational sector (National Merger Plan 2001). A further challenge is the promotion of equal opportunities with a view to ensuring that staff and management reflect the wider demographic composition of the South African society and that these institutions respond to the demands of globalisation. As a result, institutional culture becomes an increasingly important strategic issue that has to be confronted and managed appropriately (Granell 2000). Underpinning the prevailing culture in different organisational settings is the impact of variables such values, attitudes and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) towards integration during the merger process.


The prevailing climate within institutions reflects their prevalent norms and values and act as a source for shaping behaviour (McMurray 2003). Furthermore, organisational culture embodies members’ collective perceptions about their organisation with respect to dimensions such as autonomy, trust, cohesiveness, support, recognition, and fairness. Since individuals within organisations are not passive recipients of stimuli, their values and attitudes influence sensitivity which affects behaviours such as thinking, decision making and evaluations (Milton, Entrekin & Stening 1984). Whilst it maybe argued that such behaviours reflect an individual’s values, at a more subtle level, the organisational culture guides and directs employee behaviour (Cooper, Cartwright & Early 2000, McMurray 2003). A deeper, less visible level of organisational culture relates to a group’s values and basic assumptions. Moreover, this deeper level of organisational culture can be used to create control over employees in terms of following rules and practices in accordance to the values of the organisation (Wilmott 1993, Wilson 2001). Strong cultures subtly pressure employees to think and act with ways which are consistent with organisational goals. It is asserted that often organisational culture is shaped by the leader’s values, which selectively direct and influence the development of institutional climates (McMurray 2003).

During transformation, the clashing of parochial values such as ownership and loyalty with opposing values such as equity and redress of workplace imbalances creates tension and conflict (Barker 1992). Such conflicting values are enhanced by the differences which the South African apartheid structure promoted, one which dictated the privileges (previously advantaged groups enjoyed), and the subordinate role disadvantaged people were forced to play (Barker 1992). This practice was enforced by founders of public organisations, and understandably, strong cultures evolved which entrenched inequities and certain resultant values and attitudes. For instance, the workplace is still dominated by white males with their own unique values and cultures. This situation will be difficult to sustain with transformation initiatives such as managing diversity and employment equity in future managerial domains, which are being pressured to change by vast number of black people and women, from a wide spectrum of the South African society (Nieuwmeijer & Hall 1992, Jinabhai 1998). It is, therefore, understood that values in post apartheid organisational structures will clash with those embedded in the apartheid era. Not withstanding these challenges, a further impediment to the change process, is the influence of these values on attitudes towards the merger of FET Colleges.

Employee Attitudes

According to Hurst (1995) employee attitudes are considered an indicator of the future success of the organisation. To ensure global accomplishment, the challenge for organisations has become the focus of changing employee attitudes to reflect shifting perspectives on racial, gender and other diversity issues. Yet, attitudes are regularities of an individual’s feelings, thoughts and predispositions to act toward some aspects of his or her environment (Milton, Entrekin & Stening 1984). Strong attitudes may be resistant to change because people are motivated to defend their attitudes and a person’s current attitude function to shape the formation of new attitudes (Alas & Vadi, 2004). Furthermore, it is asserted that the strength of attitudes depend on the extent to which these attitudes are related to each person’s own deeply held philosophical and political values (Alas & Vadi, 2004). Ultimately perceptions have a deep connection to attitudes and could explain behaviours such as resistance to change. Balestracci (2003) asserts that much of the resistance encountered in change efforts can be classified as victim behaviour, which is exemplified by familiar organisational culture, patterns of whining and avoiding true accountability through blaming, feigning confusion, denying responsibility, and stonewalling. Furthermore, patterns of behaviour can be read to perceive threatened needs and destructive individual and group beliefs (Balestracci 2003).

The heritage of five decades of apartheid has left South Africa with a divergent workforce with differing attitudes toward change in organisations. The emphasis in the South African FET sector has shifted towards redressing workplace inequities, which necessitates a change in prevailing work attitudes. However, the major challenge facing the change initiatives within the FET sector is the strength of attitudes and how they are influenced by each person’s own deeply held philosophical and political values. Values influence the attitudes displayed by the individuals and groups undergoing sea change, which is reflected in OCB (Coyle-Shapiro 2002, Rhoades & Eisenberger 2002).

Organisational Citizenship

Employees, who believe that they have been treated fairly, respond to change initiatives within the work environment with behaviours that reflect effort beyond the call of duty. Such behaviour is referred to as organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) (Kessler & Purcell 2004). According to Coyle-Shapiro et al. (2004) the underlying premise of OCB is a form of reciprocation of fair treatment by employees. A key finding of a study conducted by Coyle-Shapiro et al. (2004) suggests that the relationship an individual has with the employing organisation is critical to understanding the rationale for employees undertaking OCB. Furthermore, the findings of a longitudinal study reported by Kreitner and Kinicki (2004) demonstrate that employee perceptions of being treated fairly at work are related to their willingness to engage in OCB. Specifically, it was found that managers were encouraged to make and implement employee related decisions in an equitable manner. Therefore, it is understood that employees either engage in OCB to reciprocate fair or good treatment or engage in OCB because they define those behaviours as part of their job. Individuals are more likely to alter their citizenship behaviour if they believe that the system is inherently fair or unfair or if they believe a decision outcome was favourable or unfavourable. Consequently, an organisation which advocates a culture directed at positive benefits towards employees creates an impetus for employees to reciprocate in positive ways through their attitudes and behaviours. Willmott (1993) asserts that the strengthening of corporate cultures provides the key to securing enhanced effort on the employees. However, Graham and Organ (1993) argue that whilst there is a positive relationship between OCB and organisational culture, this view may be one-sided. Instead it is advocated that on the flip side, OCB is influenced by covenantal relationships which capture the degree of commitment by the supervisor employee as well as mutual trust and shared values. Thus, organisational cultures which reflect values such as trust, justice and equity are important in understanding an employee’s citizenship behaviour. Leadership within the organisation and characteristics of the work environment determine OCB (Alas & Vadi 2004, Kreitner & Kinicki 2004). Furthermore, it is asserted that justice perceptions, with emphasis on the dignity and worth of individuals are important in understanding the contribution of discretionary effort (Graham & Organ 1993).

This study proposes to investigate the influence of dimensions such as OCB, values, and OCB on transformation. This investigation will be undertaken by using a case study of three merging institutions, each of which displays similar and different organisational dynamics. An analysis of the degree of variances between and within the institutions and its impact on the development of human resources within the institutions will be examined.


Subjects and Site

Respondents for this study were full time members of the administrative and academic staff from three FET institutions (A, B and C). Casual and general staff were excluded. College A was established in 1963, with a 100 per cent white student and staff composition. College B was established in 1975, with a 100 per cent black student composition, and a 50 per cent white and a 50 per cent black staffing ratio. College C was established in 1963 and had a 100 per cent black student enrolment, with a 100 per cent white staff composition. These three colleges were administratively merged in 2003 to form a new FET institution that continued to operate at the original three sites. The newly merged FET College consisted of 184 full time academic staff members and 50 administrative staff members. The racial composition of staff stood at 65 per cent white members and 35 per cent black members. The gender staffing balance consisted of 58 per cent males and 42 per cent females. Colleges A and B were classified as advantaged institutions in terms of infrastructure and institutional capacity, whilst College C, according to the Department of Education (KwaZulu Natal), was classified as a previously disadvantaged institution.


A questionnaire packet containing the instrument, and a letter describing the purpose of the study was personally delivered to each campus manager, who then administered the survey. A sample size comprising 148 participants (> 50 per cent) from the target population of 234 participated in the survey. It was considered representative for statistical tests to be performed, since it represented 63 per cent of the target population. A total of 148 questionnaires were made available for distribution to the three campuses, using stratified random sampling. A total of 102 completed questionnaires were received, which is 69 per cent of the target research population of 148. A pilot study, using a similar questionnaire, among 50 academic and administrative employees from the merger group was undertaken. The questionnaire was directed to the management, academic staff and administrative staff within each of the three institutions.


The researcher conducted a climate audit using questionnaires as a means of data collection for the quantitative analysis of the research study. The instrument used for this survey consisted of a pre coded questionnaire drawn from the Hay and McBer Organisational Climate Survey II (1996). The questionnaire was carefully constructed to facilitate maximum response and at the same time obtain more detailed information. The questionnaire employed five point Likert scales to elicit the degree of agreement or disagreement. Higher scores on values, attitudes and OCB reflect resistance to the change process being exercised by the colleges. The questionnaire had provision for respondents to supply demographic and perceptual data. Demographics of gender, age and race groups and formal education were obtained. The survey instrument provided perceptual responses for measuring respondents’ values, attitudes and organisational citizenship behaviour during the period the three Colleges (A, B and C) underwent transition to the new format.


Seminal work by Hofmeyr (1998) and later by Balestracci (2003) identified a focus of cultural dimensions such as a set of values, attitudes and behaviour patterns that guide everyday organisational performance as being part of a strategy towards implementing change. In order to measure the influence of values towards transformation efforts, 14 items were selected. Each of these items measured the organisation’s emphasis on aspects such as valuing staff training and development, building trust within work groups and superiors, knowledge sharing, sharing of resources, valuing workplace diversity and encouraging racial staffing imbalances to be corrected.


In order to determine the prevailing attitudes towards transformation efforts, 11 items were selected. Each of these items measured the attitudes displayed amongst the employees, such as co-operation with team members, perceptions of staff morale in the wake of the merger, prevailing work atmosphere, gossip amongst staff members, receiving support and encouragement, loyalty to the merging organisation, perceptions on working with the different institutions, and benefits of a merger.

Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB)

Seminal studies by Coyle-Shapiro et al. (2004) suggest that employee perceptions of being treated fairly at work are related to their readiness to engage in OCB. 14 items which measure the relationship an individual has with the employing organisation and the individual perceptions of being treated fairly were selected. Each of these items measured the employee’s perceptions with regards to equity and being recognised for their efforts, job promotions and extrinsic rewards were given fairly, people willingly took on additional tasks, financial rewards being given to top performers, encouragement to seek innovativeness and creativity in work performance, merger will jeopardise future promotions, the merger will create further promotional opportunities, being treated with fairness and respect and voluntarily engaging in team work. Appendix 1 shows the 39 items that were used to measure values, attitudes and OCB. Arithmetic means were determined.


After accurately imputing the data two main types of analyses were conducted. Demographic data was subjected to frequency assessments. Contrasts of mean scores by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were undertaken for the three variables, values, attitudes and OCB. These means were contrasted for difference at the p< 0.05 level. The reliability of the study was estimated with Cronbach’s alpha. It was found the constructs of value (0.60), attitudes (0.70) and OCB (0.70) had a relatively high degree of internal consistency.


Table 1
Demographics % (N = 102)
Variables College Respondents A
Age (years)
Blacks (Africans, Coloureds, Indians)10.813.728.4

Table 1 presents a demographic profile of the study respondents. The data show that across all three institutions males comprise the majority of respondents which reflects the past workplace practices of private and public organisations in South Africa. Whilst Colleges A and B reveal similar age and racial groupings of respondents, the demographics of College C differs, in that the majority of respondents were younger people and a greater number of Blacks were being employed, which would be more representative of the current demographics within the South African workforce. Furthermore, Colleges A and B have a majority of white staff members, which is consistent with the Department of Education’s rationale for a transformed landscape (Department of Education 1997, National Merger Plan 2001). Interestingly, College C reveals a higher number of respondents holding tertiary qualifications as compared to the other two organisations. Overall, the findings are consistent with the pursuit of the constitutional obligation towards the redressing of inequities and the removal of past forms of discrimination within the Further Education and Training (FET) sector (Department of Education 2001).

Table 2
Means, Standard Deviations and Comparisons across Colleges Undergoing Change
Variables Colleges ANOVA Scheffe’ Means
F P<

a. Values in parentheses are the standard deviations of the means.
b. OCB is organisational citizenship behaviour.

Table 2 presents the means as well as the standard deviations of the assessed three variables of values, attitudes, and OCB. In addition, the ANOVA omnibus F results and means contrasts across the three merging institutions are presented. The means contrast results confirm that College C is significantly different from Colleges A and B. For instance, the three variables have the lowest means in College C, which indicates a positive set of values and attitudes towards transformation initiatives and a displaying of trust that the merger process will bring about a redistribution of resources.

This result was expected as gauged from the historical evidence of the ‘apartheid government’ present in South Africa. However, the variable of attitudes reveals a significantly higher mean score for College B (which compares with College A) as contrasted to College C. This finding suggests that whilst there is resistance to change in terms of the values and OCB displayed by Colleges A and B, the respondents of Colleges A and B experience a greater negative attitude towards the merger process. Often it has been noted that people undergoing the change process exhibit behaviours stemming from established values and beliefs (Balestracci 2003). Furthermore, for the variable OCB, College C had the lowest mean score while College B had a significantly greater score, which suggests College B had the least favourable disposition to the transformation process. Conversely, the results indicate that College C displays a greater degree of trust than respondents of the other two institutions which is an outcome that the merger process will attempt to achieve through ideals of fairness and equity.

Concluding Discussion

The study findings lend limited support to the notion that people can be readily assimilated into change processes. In spite of the literature suggesting differences can be integrated in well designed change initiatives the evidence of this study reveals that people carry ‘cultural baggage’ to the workplace, which inhibits the transformation processes. Prevailing attitudes and behaviours within institutions reflect their dominant norms and values and act as a source for shaping behaviour (McMurray 2003). Furthermore, understanding past practices and behaviours becomes crucial for future development of a human resource strategy driven by the values and core competencies of the organisations and to develop new competencies, both to support the organisational capabilities and people issues, and to deal with cultural diversity, change and integration.

This study has attempted to examine the relevance of organisational cultures and the successful integration thereof, especially with the dynamic changes taking place on a global scale. The research findings demonstrate strong indications that past institutional practices influence current and future transformation initiatives. For instance, it was shown that College C, which was previously classified as a disadvantaged institution (i.e., poor physical resources), compared to College A, which was previously deemed to be advantaged is a reflection of how such government policies contributed to racial imbalances. Whilst it is understood that variables such as values, attitudes and OCB are a fraction of the whole integration process, ignoring or underestimating culture could be a considerable oversight. The South African example of integration of various arenas within the public sector lends impetus for other countries embarking on similar revitalisation initiatives to analyse its strengths, its differences from other countries, and identify the most suitable strategies for converting its most profound values into advantages whilst seeking its own path towards competitiveness and globalisation. The experiences within the FET sector seem to demonstrate that the secret of success for winning in a transformational economy is to manage change with much respect for and understanding of cultural diversity, creation of employment equity and encouragement of resource and knowledge sharing. The development and training of personnel to conceptualise, design and install paradigms that will drive the renaissance of the South African Education sector will be a major challenge for those who have a vested stake in these HRM practice and policies.


Kandy Dayaram has a Doctorate in Public Management (South Africa) and is a lecturer in the Curtin University of Technology School of Management. Her research interests are in change and strategic policy, and international management.



The author wishes to thank Dr Cecil Pearson for his helpful comments and advice in the development of this paper.


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Appendix 1


  1. This organisation places emphasis on performance.
  2. This organisation places emphasis on professionalism.
  3. This institution places a high value on staff training and development.
  4. I have trust and confidence in my immediate supervisor.
  5. People in my institution are encouraged to share knowledge across the institution.
  6. Things are well organised in my group.
  7. People in my group do not trust each other. (R)
  8. People in my group receive more threats and criticism than support and encouragement. (R)
  9. I find it difficult to work with people from other institutions. (R)
  10. People within the merger group are unwilling to share resources. (R)
  11. My organisation would benefit from sharing of resources with other merging organisations.
  12. I am hopeful that the merger will allow me to work with people of other cultures.
  13. The merger will bring different institutional cultures together to enhance creativity and problem solving.
  14. The merger will allow racial staffing imbalances to be corrected.


  1. There is a lot of gossip in the organisation.(R)
  2. People in this organisation do not co-operate with each other. (R)
  3. People in my organisation often speak well of it.
  4. The support and encouragement people get in this organisation outweigh the threats and criticism.
  5. The lines of authority are not clear to me. (R)
  6. I have often been concerned about the future of this organisation.(R)
  7. Staff morale has been negatively affected since the announcement of the merger. (R)
  8. Staff have a renewed commitment to their work.
  9. I do not see the value of the merger. (R)
  10. I believe the merger would not put much emphasis on improving work performance. (R)
  11. There is a friendly atmosphere among people within the merger group.

Organisational Citizenship Behaviour

  1. I can get ahead in this organisation if I make the effort.
  2. Employee decisions are handled fairly.
  3. People in this organisation willingly put in extra time on the job.
  4. People in my work group gladly take on other people’s responsibilities in an emergency.
  5. In my organisation promotions and financial rewards do not go to the top performers. (R)
  6. People in my work group are encouraged to do their jobs the way they see fit.
  7. I am treated with respect and fairness.
  8. I am satisfied that the merger will help my career.
  9. Staff have a renewed commitment to their work.
  10. Staff seem to be working harder.
  11. I fear that after the merger promotions and financial rewards will not go to the top performers within the organisation. (R)
  12. I distrust the merger process since it would encourage unfairness. (R)
  13. The merger will provide more promotion possibilities.
  14. Staff are fairly rewarded for performance and effort.

a. (R) denotes the item was reversed.
b. Source: Hay & McBer Company (1996). Organisational Climate Survey II.